The newly created Jharkhand State was carved out of Bihar and came into being on November 15, 2000. Having an area of 79714 sq. km Jharkhand has the potential to develop as the most financially viable State in the whole country owing to its mineral-based resources and the available industrial infrastructure . The State comprises of the districts of Ranchi, Gumla, Lohardagga, East Singbhum, West Singbhum, Hazaribagh, Giridih, Koderma, Chatra, Dhanbad, Bokaro, Palamau, Garhwa, Dumka, Deoghar, Godda, Pakur , Sahebgunj , Simdega, Latehar, Saraikela Kharsawan and Jamtara . The new State is bordered by Bihar, Madhya Pradesh , Orissa and West Bengal to its north, west, south and east respectively.

General Profile

The State’s total geographical area is 79.7 lakh hectares. Out of this the cultivable land is 38 lakh hectares and the present net sown area is 18.04 lakh hectares. The net irrigated area is only 1.57 lakh hectares which is 8 per cent of the net sown area. More than 29 per cent land is covered by forest area.Twenty five per cent of its land is covered as sown areas.

Jharkhand’s population is 2,69,09,428 according to the provisional census 2001 figures.In 1991 census, Jharkhand’s population was 2,18,43,911. Its population growth rate in one decade has been 23.19 per cent. The population density in the State is 338. The sex ratio in the State too has shown an upward trend: 941 in 2001 from 922 in 1991. The female literacy rate improved from 25.52 per cent in 1991 to 39.38 per cent in 2001. The main languages spoken in Jharkhand are Santhali , Mundari , Kurukh, Khortha, Nagpuria, Sadri, Khariya, Panchparagnia, Ho, Malto, Karmali, Hindi, Urdu, and Bangla . In some pockets Oriya, Maithili and Bhojpuri are also spoken. Sarhul, Karma, Sohrai, Badna, Tusu, Id, Christmas, Holi and Dushahra are the festivals celebrated in the State.The folk music of the State comprises of Akhariya Domkach, Dohari Domkach, Janani Jhumar, Mardana Jhumar, Faguwa, Udasi, Pawas, Daidhara, Pahilsanjha, Adhratiya, Vinsariya, Pratkali, and Jhumta. Jharkhand’s folk dances include Paika, Chaw, Jadur, Karma, Nachni, Natua, Agni, Choukara, Santhal, Jamda, Ghatwari, Matha, Sohrai, and Lurisayro. Santhali Bhittichitra, Oraon Bhittichitra, and Jado Patiya are the paintings of the State.


The nascent State of Jharkhand has an enormous potential for exploitation of coal, mica and other minerals particularly in Singhbhum, Bokaro, Hazaribagh, Ranchi, Koderma and Dhanbad. It is evident from the existing status of industrial units operating in the district that many ancillary industrial units could be established in and around Bokaro, Jamshedpur, Hazaribagh, Ranchi and Dhanbad using the raw materials in the form of bye-products of the industries located in these districts.There is ample scope for development and promotion of artisan-based activity such as manufacturing cane and bamboo products in Hazaribagh, Ranchi, Singhbhum and Jamshedpur districts. There is enough scope for development of artisans in metal ware, stone carving , handlooms, wood works and leaf plate-making activities. The scope for financing the transport sector is very high.

The Second State Irrigation Commission has made an assessment of the water resources in the State and identified 16 river basins which can be harnessed through major, medium and minor irrigation schemes. The Commission had identified separate potential for reservoir schemes and lift irrigation schemes.

The Commission has also assessed the ground water resources in the State at 5482 million cubic metres. The average stage of development of ground water in the State is approximately 20 per cent with further potential for future development. Ground water exploitation under the private sector is mainly through dug wells. With the huge ground water potential available in the State, 8-10 lakh additional wells can be constructed. Physiographically, the entire State is plateau area where ground water resources may not be depended upon for rabi and summer crops.

It is proposed to take up a large number of schemes under irrigation of the lands to set up watershed development projects. The main rivers flowing in the State are Damodar, Mayurakshi, Barakar, Koyal, Sankh, Son, Auranga, More, Karo, Bansloi, South Koel, Kharkai, Swarna Rekha, Ganga, Gumani and Batane.

Horticulture is one of the important sub-sectors of agriculture, having ample scope for expansion in Jharkhand. The total area occupied by various plantation and horticulture (P&H) crop in the State is about 2.57 lakh hectares with an estimated total production of 37.85 lakh tonnes. Different kinds of fruit crops are grown in Jharkhand. Considering the agro-climatic suitability and future prospects, the State Government has programmed to implement various schemes/programmes for promoting this sector. A major thrust is being given for bringing additional areas under various plantation and horticulture crops and enhancing the productivity of the yielding crops. Besides supply of protein-rich food, the fisheries sector also has vast potential to provide employment to the people in the rural areas.

Jharkhand is endowed with vast fresh water resources in the form of tanks/ponds and reservoirs. These water bodies are yet to be exploited for commercial aquaculture. Thus, there is an abundant scope for horizontal and vertical expansion of fish culture in the State. The livestock production at 10.73 lakh litres of milk, 661-.4 million eggs and 7.04 lakh kgs. of wool in Jharkhand indicate that this sector makes a sizeale contribution to the State’s economy .

Most of the dairy development activities in Jharkhand are taken care of by the Dairy Development Directorate. It promotes milk producers’ unions in the districts of Ranchi Lohardagga, Palamu, Gumla, Chaibasa, East Singhbhum Hazaribagh and Bokaro and helps in milk collection from rural areas through milk cooperative societies and marketing in the urban areas, establishment of mini-dairies and provision of technical inputs extension services .

The State has a forage seed production farm at Chatra. There is also a feed plant in Ranchi which manufactures and supplies adult cattle feed (ACF) and bypass protein feed (BPF) to the farmers on cost basis. There are dairy plants at Jamshedpur, Bokaro and Ranchi and13 milk-chilling plants in different districts of the State under the Dairy Development Directorate.
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With a view to having qualitative and quantitative achievement of wool and mutton, a new breeding policy has been adopted. Under the policy, selective breeding and cross-breeding programme had been launched at Chatra where Shahabadi ewes are crossed with Rambouillet breed of USA. Besides, Corriedale breed of ram was also used for the purpose. In addition, grading up programme of Shahabadi ewes with Corriedale ram had also been taken up. There are two wool collection centres in East Singhbhum district.

Dumka, Deoghar and Godda districts account for higher population of’ goats followed by the districts of South Chhotanagpur Division and Hazaribagh Division. Selective breeding with beetal breed and grading up with Jamunapri goats had been taken up in the State. There are threegoat farms-one in Chatra for Beetal bred and two in Ranchi and Sahebganj for Black Bengal breed.

Pigs are mostly concentrated in the plateau region of Chhotanagpur. The tribal people have a special interest and aptitude for pig husbandry. During the 8th Plan (1992-97), scheme for upgrading of country pigs with boars of exotic breed, strengthening of pig breeding farm and publicity of bacon factory product was taken up.

The State has five pig breeding farms at Gatiriakarma, Hotwar, Saraikela, Jamshedpur and Kanke where large White Yorkshre breeds and Desi breeds of pigs are reared. Ranchi Veterinary College rears pigs and supplies piglets to the farmers besides training the beneficiaries.


Although Jharkhand is endowed with vast and rich natural resources, mainly minerals and forest, 80 per cent of its population residing in 32620 villages depend mainly on agriculture and allied activities for their livelihood. One of the main strategies for development of’the Jharkhand State is to ensure agricultural and rural development on a sustainable basis. Capacity building is the focal point for any developmental endeavor.

In the agricultural sector there is scope for bringing additional area under cultivation through vertical and horizontal expansion, increasing the area under irrigation, raising production and productivity of food crops through optimum utilization of inputs like seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, agricultural tools and implements. Besides these, horticultural development has vast potential not only in terms of meeting the local requirements of fruits, vegetables flowers and medicinal and aromatic plants but also in terms of exploiting the opportunities for exports. Similar is the situation with the livestock enterprises with respect to increasing milk, meat and egg production. There is a vast scope in the State for establishing food processing units including those of fruit and vegetable preservation, milk and meat preservation and for processing minor forest produce.

The highest priority in the Annual Plan 2001-2002 has been given to rural development. The emphasis given on rural development in the VIIIth Plan is being continued in the ninth Plan as well with a view to giving due importance to the problem of rural unemployment and poverty. The next priority would be on irrigation. The emphasis on irrigation is necessary for increasing agricultural production. For creating more infrastructure, emphasis is being given on road links and irrigation. The health and energy sectors are also priority areas in the new State.

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